Consequences also known as operant conditioning as a gamification mechanic basically is a planned response based on the actions taken by the player. The consequences can both be positive or negative in nature. Like for example in a role playing scenario there may be a great way of dealing with the situation, a less preferred one and an undesirable way. In terms of creating points based on the above choices you would award full marks to the desired way, no marks or at least less marks for the less preferred options and negative marks or no marks for the undesired choice.
In learning related gamification we often have the discussion around these options. Often learning teams find it hard to penalise learners for wrong choices. Yet, we learn based on feedback from our environment. Our skills improve more by having received negative feedback on our actions rather than succeeding. Just remember how you found out whether to put your hand on a fire or hotplate… There was instant feedback that you may hurt yourself if you left your hand in the same place.
Where will you use operant conditioning or consequences in your gamification?